The Difference Between Us: Race – The Power of an Illusion 1 (Notes)

--> there is not a single genetic marker that is found in everybody of one race and in no one of any other race
--> race is not based on biology but more of an idea that we ascribe to biology
--> can populations be bundled in to groups we call races? If so, then how many races would there actually be? 
--> in terms of genetics, there is actually a small amount of variation from human to human regardless of individual attributes (genetically, we are among the most similar of species) 
--> only one in every thousand nucleotides is actually different (penguins have twice the amount of genetic differences than we do)(fruit flies have ten times as much)
--> if other races were to be so genetically different than the majority, then it would make sense that they exist at the bottom of social order (and is often used as an excuse)
--> Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro was a very influential text when it came to the downward fall of the African American race in relation to genetics (and created the extinction thesis: the theory that African Americans were to go extinct) 
--> Hoffman ignored the effects of poverty and social neglect on health
--> Because of this text, people did not see the need to improve the status of this lifestyle as "their extinction was inevitable; encoded in their blood"
--> Racial purification was one aim of the Eugenics movement 
--> group of people called the wind tribe due to their White, Native American, and Negro Ancestry 
--> The Nazi propaganda machine pointed out that their eugenic policies were entirely consistent, and in fact, derived from ideas of American Race Scientists
--> "The Negro athlete excelled because he was closer to the primitive. It was not so long ago that his ability to jump and sprint was a life and death matter to him in the jungle."
--> "You cant say that Negros have some special characteristics that make them more fit as runners"/ "There is not one single physical feature including skin color, which all our Negro champions have in common, which would identify them as Negro"
--> what is Black in the United States is not the same as what Black is in Brazil or West Africa
--> In a few genes that control the color of melanin in our skin, different alleles (different mutations) occurred that were positively selected, so that many of us with very light skin lost the capacity to make dark melanin
--> Theories state that the different levels of dark melanin are based on the needs of the people in certain regions to obtain the healthy amount of vitamin D into their skin
--> there is a continuous change in skin tone that comes with distance 
--> any two people in the same race can be as different from one another as they are to people of another race
--> Humans have not been separated from each other long enough to create separate sub-species
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