Alternative Paths Vocab

--> In Cao Dai, one of three periods of special divine revelation 
--> "Human wisdom" (Greek); a movement that grew out of Theosophy and emphasizes education and other practical means for spiritual development
--> In Scientology, a counselor who, through a series of questions, works to guide a person to greater self-understanding
--> "Door," "Gate"; a prophet who was the forerunner of Baha'u'llah, the founder of Baha'i
--> A modern monotheistic religion that grew out of Islam and emphasizes unity and equality of individuals, cultures, and religions; a follower of the Baha'i religion 
--> "Glory of Allah" (Arabic); the founder of Baha'i
--> A first-level initiate in Druidism; also, a follower of a path in Druidism
--> In Scientology, a diagram of the stages toward personal liberation
--> The syncretic religion of Brazil that blends elements of Portuguese Catholicism and African religions
Cao Dai
--> "High palace"; a syncretic religion that began in Vietnam that blends Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Catholic Christianity
Church Universal and Triumphant
--> A religion that unites elements from Theosophy and Christianity; also referred to as CUT 
--> In Scientology, the state of mental liberation; the person who has achieved mental liberation; also referred to as operating thetan, or OT
Contemporary Paganism
--> A general name for several movements that attempt to reestablish a pre-Christian European nature religion; also called Neo-Paganism
--> The long coiled hair worn by some Rastafarians
--> "Oak-tree wisdom"; a Celtic priest of two thousand years ago; a follower of the modern recreation of Druidism
--> In Scientology, an electronic machine that reads galvanic skin response; sometimes used to assist the auditing process 
--> In Scientology, an experience of earlier suffering (even from a past life) that keeps a person from relating healthily to the present
--> "Equal night"(Latin); the two days of the year, in the spring and autumn, when the hours of daylight and nighttime are equal 
--> In Wicca, the time of the full moon, often marked by a meeting or ceremony 
--> "Good rhythm" (Greek); a type of interpretive dance utilized in Anthroposophy as a technique for spiritual growth
--> "Law wheel" (Chinese); an invisible spiritual wheel, believed by followers of Falun Gong to spin in the abdominal region, distilling and spreading energy from the universe
Falun Gong
--> "Law-wheel energy" (Chinese); a modern Chinese religion that uses meditation and physical exercises in its practice
--> A deity in Voodoo
--> In Scientology, an acronym for matter, energy, space, and time; the world of time and space, the world in which spirits must live
--> In Santería, any deity
Operating Thetan
--> In Scientology, a fully liberated person; also referred to as OT and clear 
--> A general name for a deity in the Yoruba-tradition religions
--> A second-level initiate in Druidism; also, a follower of a path of Druidism
--> In Scientology, a person who is not yet spiritually liberated and who is just beginning to undergo the auditing process
--> "Energy force" (Chinese); a type of martial art that is thought to increase health and strength
Ras Tafari
--> The original name of Emperor Haile Selassie, often used by Rastafarians to emphasize his religious significance
--> A religion that began in Jamaica in the 1920's to emphasize African pride; it considers Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari) to be divine
--> "Advice," "cousel"; a term used in Wicca to describe its maxim that an act is allowable if it does no harm: "An [if] it harm none, do what you will"
--> One of eight seasonal turning points marked by Wiccans and Druids
--> A preistess of Santería
--> "Saint-thing" or "saint-way" (Spanish); a Yoruba-based religion that developed in Cuba and was influenced by Spanish Catholicism
--> A priest of Santería
--> "Knowledge-study" (Latin and Greek); a modern religion that promotes as process of focusing thought and clarifying life goals
--> "Sun-stands" (Latin); the two days of the year, at midwinter and midsummer, when the season begins to reverse itself
--> "Divine wisdom" (Greek); an eclectic movement, particularly influenced by Hinduism, that focuses on the mystical elements of all religions
--> In Scientology, the human soul
--> A religion that developed in Haiti that blends elements from French Catholicism and African religions
--> A Contemporary Pagan movement that seeks harmony with the forces of nature and worships both the female and male aspects of the divine

Islam Vocab

--> (Arabic: khalifa) "successor"; a religious and political leader
--> A devotional remembrance of Allah through the recitation of his ninety-nine names and through other devotional practices
--> "Extinction"; the sense of loss of self in mystical experience
--> "Recollection"; a r--emembrance of an act or saying of Muhammad (The plural is spelled hadiths or ahadith)
--> Pilgrimage to Mecca
--> "Flight"; Muhammad's escape from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina)
Id al-Adha/Eid al-Adha
--> The Day of Sacrifice during the month of the Hajj when an animal is sacrificed to recall the submission of Abraham
Id al-Fitr/Eid al-Fitr
--> The festival at the end of the month of Ramadan during which people feast and visit friends and often the graves of ancestors 
--> When capitalized, the word refers to one of the hereditary successors of Muhammad,who are venerated in Shiite Islam (When the word imam is not capitalized, it refers to a religious leader or to a leader of prayer
--> "Submission"; the Muslim religion and the community of believers who have submitted themselves to Allah
--> "Struggle"; the ideals of (1) spreading Islamic belief and (2) heroic self-sacrifice
--> "Cube"; the square shrine at the center of the Grand Mosque of Mecca
--> First wife of Muhammad
--> The decorated niche inside a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca
--> A tower used by a chanter to call people to prayer
--> a Muslim place of worship
--> A chanter who calls people to prayer
--> A person who submits to Allah
--> The direction toward Mecca; the direction toward which Muslims pray
--> "Recitation"; God's words as revealed to and recited by Muhammad; an authorized edition of the written words that appeared after Muhammad's death
--> The month of fasting; the ninth month of the Muslim calendar
--> "Path"; the whole body of Islamic laws that guides a Muslim's life
--> A minority branch of Islam, which holds that Muhammad's genuine successors descended from his son-in-law Ali
--> A group of devotional movements in Islam
--> The majority branch of Islam; It holds that genuine succession from Muhammad did not depend on hereditary descent from his son-in-law Ali
--> A chapter of the Qur'an

The Difference Between Us: Race – The Power of an Illusion 1 (Notes)

--> there is not a single genetic marker that is found in everybody of one race and in no one of any other race
--> race is not based on biology but more of an idea that we ascribe to biology
--> can populations be bundled in to groups we call races? If so, then how many races would there actually be? 
--> in terms of genetics, there is actually a small amount of variation from human to human regardless of individual attributes (genetically, we are among the most similar of species) 
--> only one in every thousand nucleotides is actually different (penguins have twice the amount of genetic differences than we do)(fruit flies have ten times as much)
--> if other races were to be so genetically different than the majority, then it would make sense that they exist at the bottom of social order (and is often used as an excuse)
--> Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro was a very influential text when it came to the downward fall of the African American race in relation to genetics (and created the extinction thesis: the theory that African Americans were to go extinct) 
--> Hoffman ignored the effects of poverty and social neglect on health
--> Because of this text, people did not see the need to improve the status of this lifestyle as "their extinction was inevitable; encoded in their blood"
--> Racial purification was one aim of the Eugenics movement 
--> group of people called the wind tribe due to their White, Native American, and Negro Ancestry 
--> The Nazi propaganda machine pointed out that their eugenic policies were entirely consistent, and in fact, derived from ideas of American Race Scientists
--> "The Negro athlete excelled because he was closer to the primitive. It was not so long ago that his ability to jump and sprint was a life and death matter to him in the jungle."
--> "You cant say that Negros have some special characteristics that make them more fit as runners"/ "There is not one single physical feature including skin color, which all our Negro champions have in common, which would identify them as Negro"
--> what is Black in the United States is not the same as what Black is in Brazil or West Africa
--> In a few genes that control the color of melanin in our skin, different alleles (different mutations) occurred that were positively selected, so that many of us with very light skin lost the capacity to make dark melanin
--> Theories state that the different levels of dark melanin are based on the needs of the people in certain regions to obtain the healthy amount of vitamin D into their skin
--> there is a continuous change in skin tone that comes with distance 
--> any two people in the same race can be as different from one another as they are to people of another race
--> Humans have not been separated from each other long enough to create separate sub-species

Lecture 4

Race: The Power of Illusion v.2 Topics
--> What was Thomas Jefferson's 'suspicion'? (1781)
--> Religion + Wealth as common social distinctions
--> Slavery: Identifiable (racialized) cheap labor source
--> Slavery became equated with blackness (social status + race) 
--> How did 'ordinary' whites become complicit with thee white racial narrative?
--> The distinction between 'unassimilable' blacks (emphasizing 'biological' race) v. 'civilizing' Indians (emphasizing culture)
--> What happened with the Indian Removal Act (1830)?
--> What is Manifest Destiny?
--> What kind of role did science (i.e., Agassiz, Morton) play in conceptualizing race?
--> What is the white man's burden?
--> The emergence of white racial identity as American unity 1904 St. Louis World's Fair and its racial discourse

Contemporary Conceptualization of Race
--> "A race can be defined as a group of people who (1) are generally considered to be physically distinct in some way, such as skin color, hair texture, or facial features, from other groups and (2) are generally considered by themselves and/or others to be a distinct group." (Farley, 1995)

The Four Ways Race Has Existed in our History
--> (1) Race as a 'scientific' concept (black, white, yellow, etc): This concept has led to so-called scientific racism (biological characteristics are linked to behavioral characteristics)
--> (2) Race is a socially constructed political concept: The basis of racial discrimination 
--> (3) Social category & identity (popular usage): This is how we use race in our everyday life. It might not be consistent with how the U.S. Census or sociologists define race.
--> (4) 'Biological' race and genetics, DNA, etc.: different kinds of people based on medical science

--> Racism is the belief that certain groups of people are innately, biologically, socially, and morally superior to other groups, based upon what is attributed to be their racial composition.
--> The assigning of attitudes, behaviors, and abilities to individuals or groups based on skin color; includes the institutional arrangements that privilege one group over another and the ideological apparatus that perpetuates and makes those arrangements possible.

Individual Racism
--> It involves individual hatred, racial prejudice, discrimination, and more importantly intention of the individual.
--> Racism stems from individual prejudice, and is a more psychological way of looking at racism. It ignores structural advantages that some groups receive from the social arrangement.
--> 'Racism by Intent' : If your intention cannot be proven, you're off the hook. This is relevant to what we call disparate treatment in legal context.

Structural or Systemic Racism
--> focuses on institutional power and group position
--> seeks social structural sources of racism by looking at racial biases embedded in such phenomena as the inertia of customs, bureaucratic procedures, impersonal routines, laws, or unequal distribution of resources
--> 'the institutional arrangements that privilege one group over another' : Our society is structured in certain ways that give advantage to a group(s). Once such arrangements are established, it is difficult to change (due to the second component listed below)
--> 'the ideological apparatus that perpetuates and makes those arrangements possible' : In other words, we justify how our society is structured as if the arrangements are normal and the system is, in fact, fair.
--> 'racism by consequences' : this view of racism suggest that those who benefit from the racist system are "racist" 

--> discrimination refers to only social acts (behavior), not attitude (that would be prejudice)
--> discrimination can be legal or illegal
--> (Legal) Jim Crow segregation, the drinking age, age to receive driver's license
--> An example of discrimination at the societal level would be The Holocaust

Merton's Typology
--> 'the prejudice discriminator' : This is someone who we normally call a 'racist' for doing racist things to other people. 
--> 'the unprejudiced nondiscriminator' : This is something we all strive to become. We don't hate anyone and don't discriminate against anyone.
--> 'the unprejudiced discriminator' : Can you be unprejudiced and still discriminate against someone? 
--> 'the prejudiced nondiscriminator' : A racist hiding his/her prejudice and following normal procedure.

Axial Skeleton

Cranium: encloses and protects the fragile brain tissue and is composed of eight large, flat bones 
Facial Bones: hold the eyes in an anterior position and allow the facial muscles to show our feelings through smiles or frowns 
Frontal Bone: the frontal bone forms the forehead, the bony projections under the eyebrows, and the superior part of each eye's orbit
Parietal Bones: the paired parietal bones form most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium (they meet in the midline of the skull at the sagittal suture and for the coronal suture where they meet at the frontal bone) 
Temporal Bones: the temporal bones lie inferior to the parietal bones; they join them at the squamous sutures
~~~ External Acoustic (Auditory) Meatus: the canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear
~~~ Styloid Process: a sharp, needlelike projection just inferior to the external auditory meatus ~ this serves as an attachment point for many neck muscles 
~~~ Zygomatic Process: a thin bridge of bone that joins with the cheekbone (zygomatic bone) anteriorly
~~~ Mastoid Process: a rough progression posterior and inferior to the external acoustic meatus, which is full of air cavities (mastoid sinuses); providing an attachment site for some muscles of the neck
~~~ Jugular Foramen: located at the junction of the occipital and temporal bones, this allows passage of the jugular vein, the largest vein of the head, which drains the brain
~~~ Internal Acoustic Meatus: transmits cranial nerves VII and VIII (the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves)
~~~ Carotid Canal: located anterior to the jugular foramen on the skull's inferior aspect, this canal in which the internal carotid artery runs, supplies blood to most of the brain
Occipital Bone: the most posterior bone of the cranium in which forms the floor and back wall of the skull
~~~ Foramen Magnum: large opening that surrounds the lower part of the brain and allows the spinal cord to connect with the brain
~~~ Occipital Condyles: structures that rest on the first vertebra of the spinal column
Sphenoid Bone: the butterfly shaped bone that spans the width of the skull and forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity
Sella Turcica: also called Turk's Saddle this holds the pituitary gland in place
Foramen Ovale: a large oval opening in line with the posterior end of the sella turcica that allows fibers of cranial nerve V (the trigeminal nerve) to pass to the chewing muscles of the lower jaw (mandible) 
Optic Canal: an opening that allows the optic nerve to pass to the eye
Superior Orbital Fissure: a slitlike opening through which the cranial nerves controlling eye movements (III, IV, and VI) pass
Sphenoid Sinuses: air cavities that riddle the central part of the sphenoid bone 
Ethmoid Bone: very irregularly shaped and lies anterior to the sphenoid ~ it forms the roof of the nasal cavity and part of the medial walls of the orbits
Crista Galli: a projection in which the outermost covering of the brain attaches
Cribriform Plates: allow nerve fibers carrying impulses from the olfactory (smell) receptors of the nose to reach the brain
Superior and Middle Nasal Conchae: form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and increase the turbulence of air flowing through the nasal passage 


Maxillary Bones: fuse to form the upper jaw
Alveolar Margin: where the maxillae carry the upper teeth
Palatine Processes: extensions of the maxillae that form the anterior part of  the hard palate of the mouth
Paranasal Sinuses: work to lighten the skull bones and probably act to amplify the sounds we make as we speak
Palatine Bones: form the posterior part of the hard palate ~ failure of these or the palatine processes to fuse medially results in cleft palate
Zygomatic Bones: commonly referred to as the cheekbones and form a good-sized portion of the lateral walls of the orbits or eye sockets 
Lacrimal Bones: fingernail-sized bones forming part of the medial walls of each orbit ~ each lacrimal bone has a groove that serves as a passageway for tears
Nasal Bones: small rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose
Vomer Bone: the single bone in the median line of the nasal cavity which forms most of the nasal septum
Inferior Nasal Conchae: thin, curved bones projecting  from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity 
Mandible: the largest and strongest bone of the face that joins the temporal bones on each side of the face (forming the only freely movable joints in the skull) 
Hyoid Bone: the only bone of the body that does not articulate directly with any other bone, and is instead suspended in the mid-neck region where it is anchored by ligaments to the styloid processes of the temporal bones (is not technically part of the skull) 
Fetal Skull: the skull of a fetus or newborn infant that contains a small face, large total size in comparison to the rest of the body, and a lot of cartilage
Fontanels: the fibrous regions connecting the cranial bones


Vertebral Column/Spine: the axial support of the body that extends from the skull, which it supports, to the pelvis, where it transmits the weight of the body to the lower limbs
Vertebrae: the bones of the spine that are categorized under cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae 
Intervertebral Discs: pads of flexible fibrocartilage that cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks while allowing the spine flexibility 
Primary Curvatures: the spinal curvatures in the thoracic and sacral regions
Secondary Curvatures: curvatures that develop when a baby begins to raise its head, and the lumbar curvatures begin to develop when the baby begins to walk
~~~ Body/Centrum: disclike, weight-bearing part of the vertebra facing anteriorly in the vertebral column
~~~ Vertebral Arch: arch formed from the joining of all posterior extensions from the vertebral body
~~~ Laminae/Pedicles: all posterior extensions
~~~ Vertebral Foramen: canal through which the spinal cord passes
~~~ Transverse Processes: two lateral projections from the vertebral arch
~~~ Spinous Process: single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch (actually the fused laminae) 
~~~ Superior and Inferior Articular Processes: paired projections lateral to the vertebral foramen, allowing a vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae: the seven vertebrae (C1-C7) that form the neck region of the spine
Atlas (C1): this joint allows you to nod "yes" 
Axis (C2): acts as a pivot for the rotation of the atlas (and skull) above (allows you to rotate your head from side to side indicating "no")
Dens/Odontoid Process: acts as the actual pivot point
Thoracic Vertebrae: the twelve vertebrae (T1-T12) that are larger than the cervical vertebrae (where the ribs are located) 
Lumbar Vertebrae: the five vertebrae (L1-L5) that have massive, blocklike bodies ~ their short, hatchet-shaped spinous processes make them look like a moose head from the lateral aspect
Sacrum: is formed by the fusion of five vertebrae ~ superiorly, it articulates with L5, and inferiorly, it connects with the coccyx
Alae: a winglike structure that articulates laterally with the hip bones, forming the sacroiliac joints
Median Sacral Crest: the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae ~ this is flanked laterally by the posterior sacral foramina 
Sacral Canal: the vertebral canal that continues inside the sacrum
Sacral Hiatus: a large inferior opening that terminates the sacral canal
Coccyx: the fusion of three to five tiny, irregularly shaped vertebrae ~ it is the human "tailbone," a remnant of the tail that other vertebrate animals have
Bony Thorax: the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic Cage: a protective, cone-shaped cage of slender bones around the organs of the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, and major blood vessels)
Sternum: a typical flat bone that is the result of the fusion of the three bones manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
~~~ Jugular Notch: the concave upper border of the manubrium that can be palpated easily
~~~ Sternal Angle: a transverse ridge that is formed by the manubrium and body meeting at a slight angle
~~~ Xiphisternal Joint: the point where the sternal body and xiphoid process fuse
Ribs: twelve pairs of bones that form the walls of the bony thorax ~ all the ribs articulate with the vertebral column posteriorly and then curve downward and toward the anterior body surface
True Ribs: the first seven pairs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilages
False Ribs: the next five pairs, either attached directly to the sternum or are not attached to the sternum at all
Floating Ribs: the last two pairs of false ribs that do not connect to the sternum at all


Bone Markings

Projections That are Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment

--> Tuberosity: Large, rounded projection; may be roughened 
--> Crest: Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
--> Trochanter: Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (the only examples are on the femur)
--> Line: Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
--> Tubercle: Small, rounded projection and process 
--> Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle
--> Spine: Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
--> Process: Any bony prominence 

Projections That Help to Form Joints

--> Head: Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
--> Facet: Smooth, nearly flat articular surface
--> Condyle: Rounded articular projection
--> Ramus: Armlike bar of bone

Depressions and Openings Allowing Blood Vessels and Nerves to Pass

--> Meatus: Canal-like passageway 
--> Sinus: Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane 
--> Fossa: Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
--> Groove: Furrow
--> Fissure: Narrow, slitlike opening 
--> Foramen: Round or oval opening through bone

Structure of Long Bones

Diaphysis: the shaft that makes up most of the bones length and is composed of compact bone
Periosteum: the fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers and protects the diaphysis 
Perforating/Sharpey's Fibers: hundreds of connective fibers that secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
Epiphyses: the ends of the long bone ~ each epiphyses consists of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone
Articular Cartilage: (instead of periosteum) this covers the external surface of bones ~ because it is glassy hyaline cartilage, it provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces 
Epiphyseal Line: the line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks a bit different from the rest of the bone in that area ~ it is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate
Epiphyseal Plate: a flat plate of hyaline cartilage (seen in young, growing bone) that cause the lengthwise growth of a long bone ~ after puberty, the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone, leaving only the epiphyseal lines to mark their previous location
Yellow Marrow or Medullary, Cavity: the cavity of the shaft that is used for storage of adipose (fat) tissue
Red Marrow: the substance found in bone cavities in infants ~ in adults, red marrow is confined to the cavities of spongy bone of flat bones and the epiphyses of some long bones
Bone Markings: the bumps, holes, and ridges that mark the outside of a bone and translate where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached/where blood vessels and nerves passed ~ the two categories of bone markings are projections/processes and depressions/cavities 
Osteocytes: mature bone cells
Lacunae: tiny cavities within the matrix where osteocytes can be found
Lamellae: the concentric circles that the lacunae form
Central (Haversian) Canals: what the lamellae form around ~ these canals run lengthwise through the bony matrix, carrying blood vessels and nerves to all areas of the bone
Osteon/Haversian System: each complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings
Canaliculi: tiny canals that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae ~ the canaliculi form a transportation system that connects all the bone cells to the nutrient supply through the hard bone matrix
Perforating (Volkmann's) Canals: canals that run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft in order to create communication pathways from the outside bone to its interior (and the central canals)

The calcium salts deposited in the matrix give bone its hardness, whereas the organic parts (especially the collagen fibers) provide for bone's flexibility and great tensile strength.